In TE, bioprinted constructs are cultured in bioreactors and grown into functional ‘artificial’ tissue/organ substitutes, which are then implanted into patients to help repair or treat tissue/organ injuries. Millions of people suffer from such injuries; 130,000 surgeries/year are currently performed in Canada to replace hips/knees, and at the end of 2018 some 4,351 people were on waiting lists for organ transplantation, 223 of whom died. Transplantation to treat tissue/organ injuries is severely restricted due to the limited availability of donor tissues/organs. Instead, TE aims to produce substitute tissues/organs that provide a permanent solution. An analogy would be buying new parts at the mechanic to replace car parts that are broken or no longer functioning. Successes in TE means someone who suffers a tissue/organ injury could go to a hospital, have the engineered substitute implanted to his/her body, and later completely recover healthy functioning. Our long-term goal is to develop bioprinted-scaffold-based methods/strategies for repairing damaged tissues/organs, where the scaffolds are tested for their ability to promote cell growth and tissue regeneration first in culture dishes and then in animal models and eventually in human patients.