In CID, bioprinted constructs are created to mimic human tissue/organs (e.g., human lung), serving as in vitro (out of body) tissue or virus-disease models to test/validate newly developed therapeutics and vaccines prior to their use in humans. As per the World Health Organization (WHO) on October 18, 2020, more than 39,000,000 patients worldwide had been diagnosed with novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), with more than 1,100,000 global deaths. Notably, no specific therapeutics or vaccines are currently available for COVID-19 treatment and control, although significant efforts are underway. Furthermore, the increasing frequency of infectious diseases [including the previous outbreaks of SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) in 2002-2003 and MERS (Middle East respiratory syndrome) in 2012] means that new, rapid-responding, mechanisms/strategies for CID have high priority. Our long-term goal is to develop bioprinted-scaffold-based methods/strategies for virus discovery and drug/vaccine development.